Stuttering: Basic info, Research Findings & Treatment (Part 1. Issue 1.1)
1. The definitions of Stuttering and Cluttering and their differences
2. Human’s Speech apparatus and 3 systems where Stuttering may pop up
3. What is pace, rhythm, fluent speech and syntagma as a speech-language unit, which is destroyed while we’re stammering
4. Childish nonfluencies as the very first signs of Stuttering
Stuttering is defined in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) as “Speech that is characterized by frequent repetitions or prolongations of sounds or syllables or words, or by frequent hesitations or pauses that disrupt the rhythmic flow of speech. It should be classified as a disorder only if its severity is such as to markedly disturb the fluency of speech”
In according with Belyakova’s definition, stuttering is a violation of the tempo, rhythm, and fluency of speech, caused by muscle cramps in various parts of the peripheral speech apparatus: respiratory, vocal and (or) articulatory. In this case, a tempo understands as the number of sound units that are pronounced per unit of time, rhythm as a sequential alternation of sounds organized in time. Fluent speech is characterized by the uninterrupted pronunciation of Syntagma, while syntagma (usually 3-4 words) means a logically complete segment of an utterance that is pronounced without pauses within one exhalation.
Sometimes stuttering may be confused with cluttering because replacements of sounds or words could often occur into a speech process in the same manner as in stuttering. But there are essential differences. Cluttering is defined by the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) as “A rapid rate of speech with a breakdown in fluency, but no repetitions or hesitations, of severity to give rise to diminished speech intelligibility. Speech is erratic and dysrhythmic, with rapid jerky spurts that usually involve faulty phrasing patterns”.
Nonfluencies are a feature of the speech of preschool children (2-6 y.o.), which usually coincides with the time of an intensive evolving of a speech function. These tend to be a word (part-word) and phrase repetitions, interjections, and revisions. Some authors, such as Florenskaya and Becker call it an Evolutionary Stuttering or Stuttering of Grow. Nonfluencies are not necessarily developing into stuttering, but a frequent rate of repetitions, in according with Andrews, Harris, and Bloodstein is the first sign of it noted in the majority of children. So if you noticed a frequent rate of repetitions in a speech flow of your kid, pay your attention to the additional speech signs, like accessory movements and associated features that follow in those children who develop a persistent and severe stutter. In the study of young children’s speech, both Yairi & Clifton and Westby, a little while later, have presented profiles of the speech disfluencies of highly disfluent children regarded as normal speakers in which the disfluencies are comparable in frequency and nature to those of some people who stutter.
So, if your child has a frequent rate of repetitions and other signs which may develop to real Stutter, don’t waste your time, make an appointment with a good Speech-Language Pathologist, because Stuttering could be treated much more easily while your kid still a kid. Why? We’ll talk later in one of the next videos.
This is DoctorGuu,
Be careful on the roads and prosper!